Ditchling Museum Natural Dyeing Course (5)

I’m afraid this is rather late as I’ve been seriously ill in hospital again and had to postpone the August session at Ditchling Museum.

This post should catch up on what we did at the last session before my illness, when we used madder, cochineal and weld. We followed the usual methods and prepared fibres with aluminium sulphate for wool and silk and aluminium acetate for cotton and linen. With madder and cochineal, we also used aluminium from Symplocos leaves as a mordant for all fibres. (See earlier posts for Symplocos mordanting details.)

WELD 100%

The colour from weld was extracted in the usual way, simmering it for about 30 minutes. When the dye liquid had been strained off and the fibres added, the temperature of the dye bath was kept just below simmering point to achieve clearer colours. We used both dried weld and fresh weld for comparison purposes.

 Photo by Zuzana Krskova

Weld dye bath

 Photo by Ross Belton

Dried weld results – From left above: linen, cotton, silk From left below: cotton & linen wool & silk, no mod, + acid, + alkali, + copper, + iron (All alum mordant)

 Photo by Ross Belton

Fresh weld results – From left: cotton & linen, wool & silk, no mod, + acid, + alkali, + copper, + iron (All alum mordant)

 Photo by Zuzana Krskova

Close up of some weld results – From left: cotton & linen, wool & silk, no mod, + acid, + alkali, + copper, + iron (All alum mordant)

COCHINEAL 30%

The colour was extracted from the cochineal using the multiple extraction method described on p59 of Colours from Nature. For this method the same whole (or ground) cochineal is simmered three times and the extracted colour is strained and added to the dye bath after each extraction. The solutions from the three extractions form the dye bath. It is a good idea to strain the final solution through a coffee filter paper to remove any loose particles which might cause blotches on the fibres but we didn’t do this as we didn’t have the necessary equipment. The fibres were added to the dye bath and simmered for 30 to 45 minutes.

 Photo by Zuzana Krskova

Cochineal dye bath

(More cochineal photos to follow)

MADDER ROOT 100%

The chopped madder root was used according to the following recipe: first wash the madder in a sieve under running water for a few seconds. Then pour boiling water over it, leave it to soak for about 30 seconds and then strain off this liquid and put it aside for a second dye bath later. Repeat this process and add the strained-off liquid to the first liquid. Then put the same madder root into a pot and simmer it for about 30 minutes to extract the dye colour. Strain off this liquid which becomes the first dye bath. Allow it to cool a little, then add the fibres and leave them to steep in the dye bath for about 45 minutes. If a deeper colour is required, the dye bath can be heated for 30 to 45 minutes but keep the temperature below simmering point. Then allow the fibres to cool in the dye bath.

The solutions from the first two soakings give a second dye bath, which can be used either cool or heated as above. However, I’m afraid we produced no samples from this second dye bath as it was discarded in error.

This method of dyeing with madder differs from some other methods but usually gives clear corals and reds, depending on the strength of the dye bath and the length of time the fibres are in it. For really deep colours, it is often necessary to use 200% madder to dry weight of fibres, especially if dyeing vegetable fibres.

 Photo by Zuzana Krskova

Madder dye bath

 Photo by Ross Belton

Madder root – Top from left: linen, silk, cotton Below from left: From left below: wool & silk, cotton & linen no mod, + acid, + alkali, + copper, + iron (All alum mordant)

 Photo by Ross Belton

Madder root – Top from left: cotton, linen, silk  Below from left: wool & silk, cotton & linen no mod, + acid, + alkali, + copper, + iron (All Symplocos mordant)

 Photo by Ross Belton

Tannin is not necessary when using aluminium acetate and this was an extra experiment to see if using tannin before applying aluminium acetate improved the colours.  Unsurprisingly, it didn’t. Top: cotton, below: linen 

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